From: anita freer [firstname.lastname@example.org]
Sent: Saturday, May 31, 2014 11:13 PM
To: John Freer
Subject: Fw: Athenaeum Paper
Here's one paper.
----- Original Message -----
From: Freer, John H Mr BACH
Sent: Monday, January 02, 2006 6:20 PM
Subject: Athenaeum Paper
“ON BUT NOT OVER THE HILL”
A Tribute to Louise Hightower Holloway, LPN
THURSDAY, January 5, 2006
“ON BUT NOT OVER THE HILL”
A Tribute to Louise Hightower Holloway, LPN
THURSDAY. January 5, 2006
II. HISTORY OF
III. LOUISE HIGHTOWER HOLLOWAY
A) Biographical History
B) Reflections of 42 years employment at
you keep on doing that they’ll take you to
was established by an act of the General Assembly of the
Western Lunatic Asylum was the second oldest
state mental hospital established in
Building was begun the following year, 1949. The construction was supervised by two Master Builders, Samuel L. Salter and John Orr. Both were brought into the area along with the largest work yet assembled to work on and build the most ambitious and largest public works program the area had seen to date.
the next two years $86, 036.00 was spent, an enormous sum for the day, for the
construction of the building. In 1854, when Western Lunatic Asylum opened, the
original, main Greek Revival style building was essentially as it remains
today, an imposing, 5 story brick building fronted with six massive brick columns with a long flight
of steps leading up and into the building. It was topped by a cupola, a picture
of which I’ll circulate. This picture is of the
Asylum opened for service on September 18, 1854 with the transfer of twenty
nine patients from the Eastern Lunatic Asylum in
the first year of operation 113 patients were admitted. In contrast July and
August of this year, 2005, 250 patients per month respectively, were admitted
to its namesake,
The “Big Event” in the early history of the Asylum occurred November 30, 1860. At this time, which was about the time the out break of our Civil War, a disastrous fire leveled Western Lunatic Asylum.
The “inmates” (note the patients at that time were court adjudicated and called inmates), except for a few who escaped were “rounded up” and moved to the old courthouse. The female inmates lived on one floor and the male inmates on another. The female patients were later housed in a large house the State purchased. The male patients were returned to twenty three hastily constructed log cabins at $90 per cabin that were constructed on the grounds of the Asylum and returned and remained there until the hospital could be rebuilt. During this time, several of the Attendants, who, at that time slept in the quarters with the patients and an assistant doctor, quit because of the harsh, primitive accommodations.
Samuel L. Salter, one of the two original Master Builders was called back to supervise the reconstruction. The cost of this reconstruction cost $258,000. At the time of the Asylum’s rebuilding, our Civil War had begun and reconstruction proceeded slowly. Few patients were admitted during this period and one source said, “Many of those who could not be admitted waited in chains in poor houses or jails until room could be provided.” The Asylum finally reopened in 1867.
were conditions like for the treatment of the chronically mentally ill in the
early days of this country? In The
Public Hospital (later Eastern State Hospital) of Williamsburg, VA ( and they
were much a he same at Eastern Lunatic Asylum, Lexington, KY or Western Lunatic
Asylum, Hopkinsville, KY). The following is a description of the care in the
“There were 24 cells, all designed for the security and isolation of their occupants. Each had a stout door with a barred window that looked onto a dim central passage, a mattress, a chamber pot and an iron ring in the wall to which the patient’s wrist of let fetters were attached. Neither harmless nor incurable people were admitted; the cells were reserved for dangerous individuals or for patients who might be treated and discharged.
By the theories of the day, mental illnesses were diseases of the brain and nervous system, and the mentally ill chose to be irrational. Treatment consisted of restraint, strong drugs, plunge baths and other “shock” water treatment, bleeding, and blistering salves. An electro-static machine was installed. Between 1773 and 1790, about 20 percent of the inmates were discharged as cured.
In 1790, fences 10 feet high and 80 feet long were added to each end to provide exercise yards for both sexes and staircases were built at the ends of each hall. In 1779, two dungeonlike cells were dug “under” the first floor of the hospital for the reception of patients who may be in a state of raving phernzy.
Late in the century the treatment of mental disorders began to change. By 1836 restraint had been displaced by what was called moral management, and approach that emphasized kindness, firm but gentle encouragement to self-control, work therapy, and leisure activity. Cells were furnished with beds and other comforts. “
the early 1900’s as research in the field and in part as the result of the
Great War, WW I,
late 1930’s and WW II, especially, aroused a great deal on renewed interest in
the care and treatment of our mentally ill, particularly in our state
hospitals. In the 1930’s Gov. A. B. (Happy)
A teacher of mine, Karl Menninger, MD and this
Brother, William Menninger, MD of the famed
Clifford Beers, himself a recovered former severely mental ill patient, who
became a staunch advocate of the mentally ill and the founder of the Mental
Health Associations in the
the early 1950’s, a blue ribbon Commission issued issued their report in a
landmark document, “Pattern for Change.” This became the plan for then State
Mental Health Commissioner, Dale Farabee, MD to make
in recent years in recent years
September 18, 2004
Hightower Holloway began work at
To honor a tradition of our immediate past president, Danny Guffy, I’d like to establish some tie with and some place in history for this paper.
This country’s first Social Security system had been created before in 1935.
In 1936 the throne of England was abdicated by Edward VIII, to marry the commoner and American divorcee, Wally Simpson; the 1936 Summer Olympics were held in Berlin, Germany with the triumph of the nonAryian, American Negro, Jessie Owen; in 1936 the Spanish Civil War and the war between Japan and China started; in 1936f Fascism was rampantly spreading over Europe; 1936 saw the landslide reelection of FDR; the Dust Bowl problem; the first successful helicopter flight; the world’s first, daily television broadcast by the BBC; the debut of the electric guitar and the publication of Margaret Mitchell’s blockbuster novel, “Gone With the Wind.”
Holloway was born into a devout Methodist, lower middle class farm family in
1937, a year after she began work at
many years Louise, who is now 91 years old, had kept and looked after her
younger, maiden, retired disabled sister, “Bitsy,” who has Alzheimer’. They are
both faithful, active members of
I would ask you to remember Mrs. Holloway in your prayers, about 3 weeks she fell and broke a hip and is now in Rehab in Bowling Greer. I’d also invite you to sign a card to her that I will start circulating.
Having the responsibility of that many patients would have been impossible except the patients were largely self sufficient and the other patients helped look after each other and made their own beds, washed their clothes, helped clean, cook, worked of the farm or in the barn, milking cows, etc. For many years Western State, except for buying coffee, flour, sugar, spices, produced and processed the meat, vegetables, fruit etc they consumed and in fact, Western State sold surplus milk, eggs etc. to the surrounding community.
give you an idea of the former scope of the farm operation at
“The farm of
The farm department is divided into four subdivisions. These are dairy, chicken or poultry, swine, garden and orchard.
The dairy has an average of 190 head of cattle. The average monthly milk production is around 9.000 gallons. All cows and calves not suited fort modern dairy production standards are killed for beef and used by the hospital.
The poultry project
is located south of
Our hog project is very profitable because of the garbage from the hospital. All garbage is collected in a large truck and re-cooked before being fed to the hogs. The last 12 months this project has furnished on average of 9,700 lbs. of pork each month.
The rest of the farm is more or less one unit. This unit does all the growing of hay and row crops including the garden and orchard. The past growing season we produced 962, 188 pounds of fruit and vegetables. Of this 1887, 632 pounds were put into 36,374 number 10 cans n our own cannery. Most of the vegetable production is toward the more staple foods such as beans, potatoes, onions, tomatoes and cabbage. We grow a few strawberries, some lettuce, carrots, etc. All together we row crop about 300 acres each year and care for the hay and pasture for the dairy. To do this he have seven tractors, one small bull dozer, plows, cultivators, ensilage machinery, sprayers, and other mechanical tools.”
Holloway worked “on the hill.” 123 largely medically ill patients lived there
in 3 “cottages” and 6 “tents.” The tents were primarily for patients with
tuberculosis or cancer, several of whom wee not mentally ill but destitute and
abandoned. The tents could be opened on three sides “exposing” the patients to
“fresh air and sunshine.” Both of which were thought to be “therapeutic.” She
worked on the hill with these patients for a number of years until she insisted
in being moved due to exhaustion and a fear of contracting tuberculosis.